seems to be China's unique sorrow that when it wounds itself, as it does time
and time again, it hides behind a veil of silence
and shame, leaving it to those far from China,
who don't always have its best interests in mind,
to tell the story."
Spence's gripping story was a reminder of how
incompletely most foreign faiths, ideas and isms
have been absorbed by China, and how, long before
they ever begin to take root, most such foreign
imports have mutated into almost unrecognizable
"Stay tuned. The stakes could not be
bigger. We are talking about 1.3 billion people -
one-fifth of humanity. How China's leaders manage
this transition will affect everything from the
air we breathe to the economic stability of the
world we live in. "
your site has become one of my
go-to sites for interesting perspectives on
China. Keep it up! Dan Viederman
just discovered your website and wanted to
congratulate you on a very useful site. Hannah
is a sculpture of hands holding a picture frame
in Weihai, China, on the following web page: Dec. I am very curious about it and can
only find a few pictures, but no other
information about it. Who was the artist? When
was it installed? April 2, 2002
sorry to trouble you. I am interested in Qi Baishi ( Ch`i Pai - shih , 1863 -
1957. China painter.) works. I would like to
subscribe books - reproduction about Qi Baishi.
For free price. Can be old or with defect. Thank
you very much ! 28 Jul 2002 Lithuania
like to purchase a big quantity of electrical
kitchenware such as mixer, oven,toaster,rice
cooker,... please be so kind and send your
original catalogues by DHL courier as soon as
possible so we can check the variety of your
products. 28 Jul 2003 Tehran
find in attachment file
"SPARES-24(04-05)" of specification for
Heating Element for Rice
you are able to supply then please send a price
quotation F.O.B (Export price) with
catalogue/brochure having details Technical
Specification by E-mail. 16 Aug 2004 Dhaka
BEIJING In southwestern
Yunnan Province, giant concrete pillars bestride
the fields, tracing the route of one of scores of
new rail lines that China is building.
Xinjiang, construction crews toil on a lonely
line crossing the desert wastes to the Silk Road
city of Kashgar.
end of the country to the other, China is in the
midst of a railroad boom that promises to
transform the world’s third-largest economy,
after those of the United States and Japan.
it easier to move people and goods, the railroad
mania will gradually shift the center of economic
gravity inland, accelerating the development of
central and western China in an echo of America’s
experience in the 19th century.
Ulrich, chairwoman of the China equities and
commodities business at J.P. Morgan, said she
also saw comparisons with the construction of the
Interstate highway system in the United States
and the shinkansen high-speed rail network in
Japan, both of which brought far-reaching
due to the immense scale of construction, faster
service speeds and China’s vast population, the
transformative impact may be even more
profound," she said in a recent report.
transportation links encourage manufacturers to
relocate away from the coast, demand for property
in the interior will grow, lifting consumer
sentiment and retail sales. The railroads will
also be a boon for tourism, Ms. Ulrich said.
freight and passenger traffic together, China
already has the world’s busiest railroad
system. But measured by the size of the country
and the needs of 1.3 billion people, the system
density of the network, measured in kilometers of
line per million inhabitants, is less than a
tenth of those in Russia, the United States or
Canada, a seventh of the European Union’s and
about a third of Japan’s, according to the
sparse network, totaling 86,000 kilometers, or
54,000 miles, at the end of 2009, is so
overburdened that it carries a quarter of the
world’s rail traffic on about 6 percent of the
It is no
wonder that China suffers periodic energy
shortages, because coal trains are delayed in
reaching power stations as they are shunted onto
sidings to make way for passenger trains.
of the problem, the government turned the
financial crisis into an opportunity to
fast-forward its long-term plan to lengthen the
network to 120,000 kilometers by 2020.
construction invigorated the economy last year by
creating six million jobs and generating demand
for 20 million tons of steel and 120 million tons
the policy is that large cash infusions create
jobs, then from a transport perspective railways
is certainly the place where the financing is
necessary," said John Scales, the lead
transportation policy specialist for the World
Bank in Beijing.
By the end
of 2009, work was under way on no less than
33,000 kilometers of lines, according to analysts
at Macquarie, the investment bank.
Ministry of Railways budgeting a 17 percent
increase in spending this year to 823 billion
renminbi, or $120 billion, the analysts said that
they believed the 120,000-kilometer target could
be reached as soon as 2015 and that they saw a
good chance that it would be raised to 150,000
economic case for expanding the rail network is
clear-cut. During a country’s development
phase, total demand for transportation tends to
grow faster than income.
critics say China is putting too much emphasis on
high-speed rail lines capable of accommodating
speeds of as much as 350 kilometers an hour.
already has the longest operational high-speed
network in the world, at 6,552 kilometers, and it
intends to double that total to 13,000 kilometers
by 2012 by upgrading existing track and building
high-speed line linking Beijing and Shanghai
opens by early 2012, the journey time will be cut
to 4 hours from 10.
rightly proud of the giant strides it is making.
It is seeking to build a high-speed rail line in
California and is bidding for a contract to link
Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia.
the aim is to reduce if possible the travel time
to each provincial capital from second-tier towns
in that province to two hours or less, bringing
Jian, a professor at Jiaotong University in
Beijing, who specializes in rail economics, is
scathing in his assessment of what he calls the
"blind pursuit of speed".
He said in
the monthly journal Comprehensive Transportation
that China could have built an extra 30,000
kilometers of conventional track with the money
saved from what he characterized as
"extravagant" high-speed lines.
argued, does not have the technological
experience to be sure of operating such lines
safely. Moreover, high-speed trains gobble up
energy and subsidies.
no high-speed railway in the world that can be
financially self-sustaining, Mr. Zhao said in the
journal. "The large-scale construction of
high-speed railway passenger lines in China will
definitely be confronted with huge risks".
rail travel could even pose social and political
risks, he added, since fares on the new trains
are three times as high as those on ordinary
addition, he said, the Ministry of Railways is
deliberately reducing the frequency of slower
trains to make passengers use the new services.
will be met with strong social discontent,"
Mr. Zhao said.
Scales, the World Bank expert, sees things
other parts of the world, nobody would think of
designing new passenger lines for less than 350
kilometers per hour," he said. "So it’s
"And remember that many of the dedicated
passenger lines are not built to move passengers,
but to get passengers off the freight lines. That’s
where the real bottlenecks are."
HONG KONG — The Chinese government announced
late Saturday an unusually broad series of
retaliatory measures in response to the latest
United States arms sales to Taiwan, including
sanctions against American companies that supply
the weapon systems for the arms sales.
The Foreign Ministry announced in a pair of
statements from Beijing that some military
exchange programs between the United States and
China would be canceled in addition to the
commercial sanctions. Furthermore, a vice foreign
minister, He Yafei, has called in Jon M. Huntsman
Jr., the United States ambassador to China, to
protest the sales.
The American decision to sell more weapons to
Taiwan “constitutes a gross intervention into
China’s internal affairs, seriously endangers
China’s national security and harms China’s
peaceful reunification efforts,” Mr. He said in
the ministry’s statement.
The Obama administration notified Congress on
Friday of its plans to proceed with five arms
sales transactions with Taiwan worth a total of
$6.4 billion. The arms deals include 60 Black
Hawk helicopters, Patriot interceptor missiles,
advanced Harpoon missiles that can be used
against land or ship targets and two refurbished
China has regarded Taiwan as a breakaway province
ever since the Communists prevailed in 1949 in
China’s civil war and the Nationalists
retreated to Taiwan. The United States has been
supplying Taiwan with arms under the Taiwan
Relations Act, which Congress approved in 1979
and which mandates that the United States supply
weapons that Taiwan could use to fend off an
attack by mainland Chinese forces.
Canceling military discussions and calling in the
American ambassador have been two standard
Chinese measures in response to previous American
arms sales to Taiwan. But the announcement of
restrictions on the Chinese operations of
American companies involved in the arms sales
represents an unusual twist, said James C.
Mulvenon, the director of the Center for
Intelligence Research and Analysis, a defense
analysis firm in Washington.
The Foreign Ministry’s statement that mentioned
the commercial sanctions was vague, providing no
details on the restrictions that would be imposed
on these companies’ business dealings in China
or even what companies would be involved.
“We regret that the Chinese side has curtailed
military-to-military and other exchanges” Geoff
Morrell, the Pentagon press secretary, said,
according to Reuters. “We also regret Chinese
action against U.S. firms transferring defensive
articles to Taiwan.”
The United States has occasionally imposed bans
on exports to the United States by Chinese
companies that have violated international
agreements on weapons proliferation, most notably
penalizing Chinese companies involved in alleged
surreptitious shipments of medium-range missiles
But China is going a step further in moving to
penalize American companies engaged in commercial
arms transactions that are publicly announced and
do not violate international nonproliferation
pacts, Mr. Mulvenon said.
The World Trade Organization generally prohibits
the imposition of import restrictions as
political maneuvers. But the body’s rules
include a broad exception for national security
that the Chinese could cite if the United States
tried to challenge them.
China has also never joined the W.T.O. side
agreement on government procurement. So China
could bar the American companies from selling to
the government without fear of W.T.O. review.
BEIJING, Jan. 14
(Xinhua) -- China's Internet is open and welcomes
international companies, a Foreign Ministry
spokesperson said Thursday, just two days after
Google issued a statement saying it might quit
Spokeswoman Jiang Yu told a regular news briefing
that China encouraged development of the
"China's Internet is open," said Jiang.
"China has tried creating a favorable
environment for Internet," said Jiang while
responding to a question on Google's possible
"China welcomes international Internet
companies to conduct business within the country
according to law," she said. "China's
law prohibits cyber crimes including hacker
Google's corporate development and chief legal
officer, David Drummond, posted a statement on
the company's official blog on Tuesday,
indicating the possibility that Google may
"shut down Google.cn, and potentially our
offices in China."
The statement said that its disputes with the
government and unidentified attacks targeting
Google's services in China forced the company to
make the review of "the feasibility of our
business operations in China."
Google sent a short statement to Xinhua
Wednesday, saying, "We are proud of our
achievements in China. Currently we are reviewing
the decision and hope for a resolution."
According to the iResearch Consulting Group, the
Chinese search engine market reached nearly 7
billion yuan (about 1 billion U.S. dollars) in
2009, and Google took 32.8 percent of the market
in the third-quarter while China's home-grown
search engine Baidu claimed 63.8 percent.
By Eugene Hoshiko And Alexa Olesen, Associated
Press Writers – Tue Jan 12, 4:25 pm ET
YIWU, China – For China's low-cost jewelry
makers, it was an open trade secret: The metal
cadmium is shiny, strong and malleable at low
temperatures, regardless of its health hazards.
And it's cheap.
Despite the risks, manufacturers in factories
ringing this city on China's east coast say their
top priority is profit. So offering cut-rate
goods often means using lower quality materials,
including cadmium, which is known to cause
"Business is business, and it's all up to
our client," said He Huihua, manager of the
Suiyuan Jewelry Shop at International Trade City
in Yiwu, a sprawling wholesale mecca where
sellers pitch their wares in hopes of landing a
lucrative export contract.
He spoke from a small cubicle with rows of
dangling metal earrings and key chains hanging on
the wall. Elsewhere, brooches, necklaces, charms
and other baubles shone under the market's
"We just make what our clients order. If
they pay more, we use the better raw material,
and vice-versa. From a few cents to a few
dollars, we can make the same style of jewelry
product with a different raw material."
Asked what he thought about the health risks
associated with cadmium and other toxic metals,
He said: "I can't be overly concerned about
Long-standing concerns about the safety of
Chinese exports flared anew this week after an
investigation by The Associated Press found that
12 of 103 pieces of mainly Chinese-made
children's jewelry bought in the Unites States
contained at least 10 percent cadmium, some in
the 80-90 percent range. Two had less than 10
percent and the rest had none.
The findings prompted retail giant Wal-Mart
Stores Inc. to remove the products cited by AP
from its stores in the United States. On Tuesday,
the jewelry and accessories chain Claire's, with
nearly 3,000 locations in North America and
Europe, announced that it, too, would stop
selling any item cited in the AP investigation.
Charms on a "Best Friends" bracelet
sold at Claire's contained 89 and 91 percent
cadmium, according to testing organized by AP,
and shed alarming amounts in a procedure that
examined how much cadmium children might be
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
announced it was opening an investigation into
the AP's findings, and China's government also
took notice of the trouble brewing in its largest
"We just heard about this, and we will
investigate," said Wang Xin, director of
supervision in the General Administration of
Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine.
He spoke to an AP reporter at a toy safety
conference in Hong Kong. His agency and the
Ministry of Commerce did not immediately respond
to written questions submitted by fax in Beijing.
The tainted jewelry was reminiscent of the
product-safety scandals of 2007 in which
dangerous levels of lead caused Mattel Inc. and
other toy makers to recall large numbers of
Chinese-made toys. Following that, the U.S.
government enacted tougher limits on lead in
Beijing also promised greater vigilance in
enforcing safety standards for exports and the
China has regulations limiting cadmium to tiny
amounts in fashion jewelry and children's toys.
Fashion jewelry should not contain more than 0.1
percent cadmium. In materials for toys, cadmium
should not exceed 75 parts per million, or 50
parts per million for clay and paint.
The limits are comparable with international
standards. But enforcement is still lax, as it
was in 2007.
A metals expert in a Yiwu jewelry factory said
some raw-material suppliers sell an alloy
containing up to 90 percent cadmium.
Interviews with more than a dozen manufacturers
and sellers in Yiwu confirm that cadmium is a
common ingredient in the earrings, bracelets,
charms and other baubles being churned out by
local factories and piled high in that city's
Yiwu, once a small county town five hours south
of Shanghai, has boomed in the past 20 years. It
now dominates China's low- to mid-range jewelry
market, while premium products using gold and
real gems tend to be made down south in the Pearl
River Delta, near Hong Kong.
In all, China shipped about 1.3 million pounds
(595,000 kilograms) of jewelry abroad in 2008 —
a 15 percent decrease from the previous year,
according to the Hong Kong-based consulting firm
Tao Xinyao, a metals expert who works in the Yiwu
factory for jewelry maker Neoglory, said she
noticed an uptick in the use of cadmium around
2003, when prices of the metal hit a low. Jewelry
makers discovered they could work with cadmium at
much lower temperatures than they could zinc, the
most common nontoxic material, she said.
The lower melting point for cadmium — around
300 degrees Celsius compared to 400 degrees for
zinc — means factories use less energy and do
not need to change their silicon rubber molds as
often, Tao said. Because cadmium is lighter than
zinc, buyers also get more per ton when they buy
"In the Yiwu market, some material suppliers
sell so-called 'zinc alloys,'" Tao said.
"However, this may contain just a very small
amount of zinc, and 80 to 90 percent cadmium. It
actually should be called cadmium alloy."
Lead and cadmium are commonly found in metal
jewelry sold in China simply because it's
cheaper. A ton of high-quality zinc costs about
28,000 yuan ($4,100) while zinc with lead,
cadmium or both in it sells for about 16,000 yuan
($2,350), said Frank Zhang, an executive with a
jewelry factory in Yiwu that specializes in
high-end exports but who did not want his Chinese
or company names used.
Industry executives said most of the low-end
goods with high amounts of cadmium are sold in
China and increasingly sent to Dubai and other
markets in the Middle East with less stringent
import controls than the U.S. or Europe.
Cutting corners and trimming costs have become
even more critical to Chinese manufacturers since
the financial crisis sent purchase orders
plummeting. Global Sources said about 10 percent
of China's jewelry plants were forced to shut
down in 2008 due to the financial crisis.
Sales representative Toby Zhu said his company, a
jewelry factory in Yiwu that turns out faux
diamonds and jade strung on gold-plated chains,
is among those feeling the pinch.
Over the last year, Zhu's factory closed its
showroom at the trade mall, laid off seven of its
100 workers and gave deep discounts to loyal
customers in an attempt to weather the financial
crisis. They are also using a cheaper grade of
zinc than before, but Zhu denied switching to a
cadmium alloy. He said their zinc alloys were
mid-range in price and contained safe metals such
as copper, magnesium or steel.
Zhu, who did not want his Chinese or company's
name used, said lead was even better than cadmium
or zinc for tiny charms. Since the U.S. adopted
more restrictions on lead, he said, many overseas
clients have come to demand lead-free products,
probably prompting many manufacturers to turn to
Making sure Chinese-made goods are safe requires
constant vigilance — something many foreign
companies fail to do, said Christopher Devereux,
managing director of the Guangzhou-based
consulting firm Chinasavvy HK Ltd. China traders
like Devereux call it "quality fade"
— a phenomenon in China in which suppliers
constantly try to produce goods more cheaply with
"In any other country in the West, your
quality curve goes upwards, but it's the opposite
in China. We just have learned our lesson. We
need to check every single batch," said
Devereux who helps Western companies buy and
produce a variety of goods in China, from toys
and plumbing fixtures to shoes and lunch boxes.
"Cadmium is one of the nastiest of the heavy
metals, worse than lead. I was absolutely amazed
that people were using it," he said.
Chen Zaiying, manager of the Yiwu SK Jewelry shop
in the International Trade City, echoed
Devereux's comment, saying many Chinese
manufacturers combine hazardous batches with
others that comply with regulations in the
"The buyer should not rely only on the
inspection report offered by the producer,"
Chen said. "They should have the sense to do
their own inspection as well if they really want
the product to meet the export standard."
Olesen reported from Beijing. Associated Press
writers William Foreman in Guangzhou and Jeremiah
Marquez in Hong Kong, and AP researchers Xi Yue
in Beijing and Ji Chen in Yiwu contributed to
Efforts were urged recently by energy experts for
the nation to protect and strengthen the
pipelines in light of the Dec 30 discovery of
diesel fuel leakage into a tributary of the
The leak has spread downstream into Shanxi and
Henan provinces and contaminated the drinking
water of many local residents.
China now has around 50,000 km of oil and gas
pipelines, and will build 40,000 km of pipelines
in the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-15),
according to China National Petroleum Corp
(CNPC), the country's largest oil and gas
Rapid urbanization has resulted in the reckless
construction of buildings and roads within the
pipelines' buffer zones in recent years, said Cao
Kangtai, director of Legislative Affairs Office
of the State Council.
Rampant theft of oil and gas through illegal
siphoning is also a major threat, he said.
Thieves illegally drilled into the CNPC's
pipelines 18,382 times from 2002 to 2006, causing
the company a loss of more than 500 million yuan
($72 million), according to CNPC.
Oil theft is now a major cause of oil spills,
said Liu Zheng, a professor from Tsinghua
University, to China Daily.
"Those who steal the oil from pipelines
never think about the consequences on a large
area of soil surrounding the pipeline," said
In China, most oil pipelines are built near
farmland where oil spills usually damage land and
crops. Toxic substances contained in oil tend to
accumulate in plants and animals, which
consequentially threaten the health of humans who
consume the polluted plants, he said.
Moreover, oil pipelines could be a target for
Li Wei, director of the center for
counterterrorism studies at the China Institutes
of Contemporary International Relations, said
that attempts to attack energy production and
transportation infrastructure by creating
explosions have been previously made in Saudi
Arabia, Iraq and South America.
"Though terrorists are more likely to aim at
causing a large number of casualties instead of
attacking pipelines in China, there is still a
possibility," Li said.
A draft law to "protect oil and gas
pipelines, maintain transportation safety and
public safety and safeguard the national resource
supply" was sent to the National People's
Congress Standing Committee for a first reading
And security measures such as cameras have also
been installed every few kilometers along
pipelines, Han said.
"But full monitoring is difficult to achieve
on pipelines laid outside of China's
territory," he said.
"Once a pipeline, such as the gas pipeline
between China and Turkmenistan, is attacked
outside of China, a large area in China could
suffer a shortage of natural gas, since it does
not have enough on reserve," Han said.
China is now the world's second largest oil
importer and a major consumer of natural gas.
Official statistics show that China imported
nearly 200 million tons of crude oil last year.
The Chinese Academy of Social Sciences said 64.5
percent of the country's oil consumption was
likely to be met by imports in 2020.
China also has set a target of raising the
proportion of natural gas in its total energy
consumption to 5.3 percent in 2010 from 2.8
percent in 2005. The targeted output of the fuel
in 2010 is 90 billion cu m.
rolling out an ambitious plan to support and
expand the global presence of its media and
publication companies, though an industry expert
warned of challenges to the nation's "going
Domestic publication companies will be encouraged
to invest abroad by establishing overseas
branches, making media takeovers or working with
foreign counterparts as partners, according to
the latest guideline released by the General
Administration of Press and Publication.
"The plan is to let the world know more
about China and to enhance the influence of
Chinese culture," said Fan Weiping, head of
the administration's publication
industrialization department, to China Daily
The central government will provide support in
policy, resources, information and other services
that broaden its media outlets through
publications, copyrights and brands, according to
"I hope Chinese cultural enterprises will be
booming at every corner of the world like Chinese
restaurants have," he said.
As of this year, the Chinese mainland has 958
publishers of books and electronic print products
and boasts 9,549 magazines and 1,943 newspapers.
The output of the press and publishing industry
is expected to hit 1 trillion yuan (US$147
billion) in 2009, according to government
Fan said the administration has signed a
framework agreement with the Bank of China to
finance expansion ventures. Other commercial
banks are expected to sign on in the future to
support public and private publication
He added the scale and presence of the Chinese
press and printing industry overseas are still
relatively small because of cultural barriers.
But the successful globalization of "Made in
China" products can't be applied to cultural
products, said Yu Guoming, associate dean of the
School of Journalism and Communication in Renmin
University of China.
"Selling the Chinese press and publications
everywhere is not going to happen because of
cultural differences and how the Chinese media is
received in different regions of the world,"
said Yu. "We call it 'culture
He suggested that the nation's publishing and
media firms that are seeking to expand abroad
should seek commonalities with their foreign
"The investment in the culture industry will
not be successful in crossing over unless
investors learn and understand the rules of other
cultures," Yu said.
The Chinese government's ad campaign to promote
"Made in China" products on cable news
outlet CNN was cited by Yu as a good example of
sharing the Chinese culture and values to the
The guideline also said China will encourage
private enterprises to play a bigger role in the
Private capital will be permitted to enter the
publishing industry as content suppliers or
partners to publish books about science and
technology, finance, the arts and other fields,
according to the guideline.
China previously only allowed limited private
investment in printing and publishing industry.
It also encouraged publishing companies to employ
self-financing measures by issuing corporate
bonds, absorbing foreign investments and going
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